We explore the phenomenon of historical memory

Teaching History: See, Acknowledge & Respect Duration 3:39

The Confronting Memories Programme explores the phenomenon of historical memory. What is the connection between the past and the present? How do historical events shape different countries and societies today?

With our programme, we create a space for a meaningful dialogue with diverse perspectives on the history of the 20th and 21st centuries. We bring together conflicting views and search for common ground. Confronting Memories is an initiative of Civil Society Forum e.V. and a cooperation between various international partners.

Confronting Memories
in Numbers

22 cities

Exhibition tour

The Different Wars exhibition was displayed in the EU, Russia and Belarus. The exhibition shows how WWII is depicted in school history textbooks in six countries: Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Poland, Lithuania and Russia.

5 languages

Lesson materials

In 2020 we created history lesson materials for 13- to 19-year-old students in Belarusian, English, German, Polish and Russian. In 2021, Ukraine joined the project.

80 history teachers

Capacity building

In 2020 – 2022 teachers from Belarus, Germany, Moldova, Poland, Russia and Ukraine took part in our capacity building webinars and methodological workshops and delved into how to teach history from multiple perspectives.

8 topics

WWII history

In our lesson materials and multimedia, we present different themes and topics related to WWII history.


Photo credit: Marianne Sievers

Marcus Chavasse

Project Manager at Civil Society Forum e.V.

Within the CSF, he works mainly on the Confronting Memories programme, as well as climate-related projects. Next to managing the programme’s social media accounts and website, he coordinates groups of teachers during the development stages of the project. He has a strong interest in history and how it is used in contemporary political debates, and studied German, Russian and International Relations in the UK and the Netherlands.

Kristina Smolijaninovaitė

Deputy Director of Civil Society Forum e.V. and Confronting Memories Programme Leader

She initiated the CSF’s Working Group on Historical Memory and Education in 2013 and also the Forum’s history programme Confronting Memories in 2020. She was one of the curators of the exhibition, Different Wars: National School Textbooks on World War II, and co-authored the accompanying catalogue. Kristina studied cultural heritage and languages in Lithuania, Germany and Turkey.


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